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Although the bears have been described as having "a birth canal that runs through the clitoris rather than forming a separate vagina" a feature that is estimated to make up 10 to 20 percent of the bears' population , [] scientists state that female spotted hyenas are the only non- hermaphroditic female mammals devoid of an external vaginal opening, and whose sexual anatomy is distinct from usual intersex cases.

In spider monkeys , the clitoris is especially developed and has an interior passage, or urethra, that makes it almost identical to the penis, and it retains and distributes urine droplets as the female spider monkey moves around.

Scholar Alan F. Dixson stated that this urine "is voided at the bases of the clitoris, flows down the shallow groove on its perineal surface, and is held by the skin folds on each side of the groove".

The clitoris erects in squirrel monkeys during dominance displays, which indirectly influences the squirrel monkeys' reproductive success.

The clitoris of bonobos is larger and more externalized than in most mammals; [] Natalie Angier said that a young adolescent "female bonobo is maybe half the weight of a human teenager, but her clitoris is three times bigger than the human equivalent, and visible enough to waggle unmistakably as she walks".

Ethologist Jonathan Balcombe stated that female bonobos rub their clitorises together rapidly for ten to twenty seconds, and this behavior, "which may be repeated in rapid succession, is usually accompanied by grinding, shrieking, and clitoral engorgement"; he added that, on average, they engage in this practice "about once every two hours", and as bonobos sometimes mate face-to-face, "evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk has suggested that the position of the clitoris in bonobos and some other primates has evolved to maximize stimulation during sexual intercourse".

Many strepsirrhine species exhibit elongated clitorises that are either fully or partially tunneled by the urethra, including mouse lemurs , dwarf lemurs , all Eulemur species, lorises and galagos.

They are described as having "elongated, pendulous clitorises that are [fully] tunneled by a urethra". The urethra is surrounded by erectile tissue, which allows for significant swelling during breeding seasons, but this erectile tissue differs from the typical male corpus spongiosum.

During pregnancy, estrogen, A 4 , and testosterone levels are raised, but female fetuses are still "protected" from excess testosterone. While female spotted hyenas are sometimes referred to as hermaphrodites or as intersex , [] and scientists of ancient and later historical times believed that they were hermaphrodites, [] [] [] modern scientists do not refer to them as such.

Wingfield stated that "the resemblance to male genitalia is so close that sex can be determined with confidence only by palpation of the scrotum".

In the females, this scrotum consists of soft adipose tissue. Just like a penis, [it] is fully erectile, raising its head in hyena greeting ceremonies, social displays, games of rough and tumble or when sniffing out peers".

Due to their higher levels of androgen exposure during fetal development, the female hyenas are significantly more muscular and aggressive than their male counterparts; social-wise, they are of higher rank than the males, being dominant or dominant and alpha , and the females who have been exposed to higher levels of androgen than average become higher-ranking than their female peers.

Subordinate females lick the clitorises of higher-ranked females as a sign of submission and obedience, but females also lick each other's clitorises as a greeting or to strengthen social bonds; in contrast, while all males lick the clitorises of dominant females, the females will not lick the penises of males because males are considered to be of lowest rank.

The urethra and vagina of the female spotted hyena exit through the clitoris, allowing the females to urinate, copulate and give birth through this organ.

In an action similar to pushing up a shirtsleeve, the "female retracts the [pseudo-penis] on itself, and creates an opening into which the male inserts his own penis".

A Baskin et al. The dorsal nerves penetrated the corporeal body and distally the glans in the hyena" and, in female hyenas, "the dorsal nerves fanned out laterally on the clitoral body.

Glans morphology was different in appearance in both sexes, being wide and blunt in the female and tapered in the male".

Many species of Talpid moles exhibit peniform clitorises that are tunneled by the urethra and are found to have erectile tissue, most notably species from the Talpa genus found in Europe.

Genetic studies have revealed that females have an XX genotype and do not have any translocated Y-linked genes. DMRT1 , a gene that regulates development of Sertoli cells , was found to be expressed in female germ cells before meiosis, however no Sertoli cells were present in the fully-developed ovotestes.

Additionally, the female germ cells only enter meiosis postnatally, a phenomenon that has not been found in any other eutherian mammal. Female European moles are highly territorial and will not allow males in to their territory outside of breeding season, the probable cause of this behavior being the high levels of testosterone secreted by the female ovotestes.

Researchers studying the peripheral and central afferent pathways from the feline clitoris concluded that "afferent neurons projecting to the clitoris of the cat were identified by WGA-HRP tracing in the S1 and S2 dorsal root ganglia.

An average of cells were identified on each side of the animal. The average cross sectional area of clitoral afferent neuron profiles was 1.

The external phenotype and reproductive behavior of 21 freemartin sheep and two male pseudohermaphrodite sheep were recorded with the aim of identifying any characteristics that could predict a failure to breed.

The vagina's length and the size and shape of the vulva and clitoris were among the aspects analyzed. While the study reported that "a number of physical and behavioural abnormalities were detected," it also concluded that "the only consistent finding in all 23 animals was a short vagina which varied in length from 3.

In a study concerning the clitoral structure of mice, the mouse perineal urethra was documented as being surrounded by erectile tissue forming the bulbs of the clitoris.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Female sex organ. For other uses, see Clit disambiguation. The internal anatomy of the human vulva , with the clitoral hood and labia minora indicated as lines.

The clitoris extends from the visible portion to a point below the pubic bone. Location of 1 clitoral hood and 2 clitoral glans.

Main articles: Genital modification and mutilation , Female genital mutilation , and Clitoromegaly. See also: Vagina and vulva in art.

Further information: Religious views on female genital mutilation and Clitoral hood reduction. The genitals are pressed tightly together while the partners move in a grinding motion.

Some rub their clitoris against their partner's pubic bone. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.

September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Online Etymology Dictionary. Nature Education. Retrieved 10 August American Academy of Family Physicians.

Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 18 August Chicago Women's Liberation Union.

Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 12 December The Stranger. Retrieved 6 May Experts Debate".

Retrieved 28 November Scientist can't find it". Retrieved 2 March University of Alberta. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 21 December Drug Enforcement Administration.

March Retrieved 7 November World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 30 July Amnesty International.

Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 8 May The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 June The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March Journal of Biological Education.

Retrieved 2 September BBC Three. Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of Primates. Osman William Charles Osman Edinburgh U.

Scientific Reports. Journal of Morphology. August Current Directions in Psychological Science. Frontiers in Zoology. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Sexual Development. Baskin, Laurence S. January Journal of Urology. Morphometric and Vascular Modifications of the Clitoris.

A Case Report". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Studies in Gender and Sexuality. Wiederman, Michael W ed. Journal of Sex Research.

Reprod Health. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Winter Hawkins, C. Biology of Reproduction.

Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. June Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. February Brain Research. Komisaruk, Barry R.

CBS News. Lloyd, Jillian; Crouch, Naomi S. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Clinical Psychology Review.

October The Journal of Urology. BBC News. Sex Roles. April Feminist Studies. December Anatomischer Anzeiger [Anatomical Gazette] in German. Therapeutic Advances in Urology.

The Anatomical Record. Veterinary Record. Symbolic Interaction. Acton, Ashton The Latin Sexual Vocabulary. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. Year Book of Urology Elsevier Health Sciences. Woman: An Intimate Geography.

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Springer Publishing Company. Sex and Gender. Cambridge University Press. University of California Press. Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders.

American Psychiatric Pub. Textbook of Midwifery and Reproductive Health Nursing. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. Rutgers University Press.

Our bodies, Ourselves: A Book by and for Women. Blumberg, Mark S. Freaks of Nature: And what they tell us about evolution and development.

Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Discovery Series: Human Sexuality 1st ed. Women's Health: Hormones, Emotions and Behavior. Sex and Society.

Marshall Cavendish Corporation. The Clitoral Truth. Seven Seas Press. Practical Urology: Essential Principles and Practice.

Women and Gender: A Feminist Psychology 4th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill. Our Sexuality. Williams Obstetrics: 22nd Edition.

McGraw Hill Professional. Handbook of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology. Elsevier Biomedical Press. Reaktion Books. SUNY Press.

The Vulva: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology. CRC Press. Comparative Anatomy: Manual of Vertebrate Dissection. Morton Publishing Company.

A Lange clinical manual. The Complete Dictionary of Sexology. The Continuum Publishing Company. Libraries Unlimited.

Discovering Biological Psychology. In Price, Pat; Sikora, Karol eds. Treatment of Cancer. In Mulhall, John P.

Cancer and Sexual Health. Springer Publishing. Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. University Press of New England.

In Wilson, D; Mittermeier, R eds. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Lynx Edicions. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory.

Harvard University Press. Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Female Masculinity. Duke University Press. Human Reproduction at a Glance.

Blackwell Sciences. Hite, Shere New York: Seven Stories Press. Understanding Human Sexuality.

Human Reproductive Biology. Academic Press. Disorders of desire: sexuality and gender in modern American sexology. Temple University Press.

The Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Infobase Publishing. Psychology Press. Benign Diseases of the Vulva And Vagina.

Elsevier Mosby. The external genitalia of a female fetus may become masculinized if exposed to excess androgens in utero. Besides enlargement, congenital abnormalities of the clitoris may also include agenesis or hypoplasia.

After the 13th to 14th weeks of gestation, androgen exposure produces clitoromegaly alone. The Orgasm Answer Guide. Modern Text Book of Zoology: Vertebrates.

Rastogi Publications. The Psychology of Human Sexuality. Reconstructive urologic surgery.

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Although Sigmund Freud 's theory that clitoral orgasms are a prepubertal or adolescent phenomenon and that vaginal or G-spot orgasms are something that only physically mature females experience had been criticized before, Kinsey was the first researcher to harshly criticize the theory.

Irvine stated that he "criticized Freud and other theorists for projecting male constructs of sexuality onto women" and "viewed the clitoris as the main center of sexual response".

He considered the vagina to be "relatively unimportant" for sexual satisfaction, relaying that "few women inserted fingers or objects into their vaginas when they masturbated".

Believing that vaginal orgasms are "a physiological impossibility" because the vagina has insufficient nerve endings for sexual pleasure or climax, he "concluded that satisfaction from penile penetration [is] mainly psychological or perhaps the result of referred sensation".

Masters and Johnson 's research, as well as Shere Hite 's, generally supported Kinsey's findings about the female orgasm. They observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms have the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms.

On that basis, they argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms, [93] reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood.

Lombard Kelly], Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson, to mention just a few sources, there is no ignorance on the subject [of the female orgasm]," she stated in her article The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm.

She added, "There are, however, social reasons why this knowledge has not been popularized. We are living in a male society which has not sought change in women's role.

Supporting an anatomical relationship between the clitoris and vagina is a study published in , which investigated the size of the clitoris; Australian urologist Helen O'Connell, described as having initiated discourse among mainstream medical professionals to refocus on and redefine the clitoris, noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the clitoral bulbs and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina while using magnetic resonance imaging MRI technology.

In , they published the first complete 3D sonography of the stimulated clitoris, and republished it in with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina.

On the basis of their findings, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot, because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration.

They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible.

In their published study, the "coronal planes during perineal contraction and finger penetration demonstrated a close relationship between the root of the clitoris and the anterior vaginal wall".

The G-spot being analogous to the base of the male penis has additionally been theorized, with sentiment from researcher Amichai Kilchevsky that because female fetal development is the "default" state in the absence of substantial exposure to male hormones and therefore the penis is essentially a clitoris enlarged by such hormones, there is no evolutionary reason why females would have an entity in addition to the clitoris that can produce orgasms.

Whether the clitoris is vestigial , an adaptation , or serves a reproductive function has also been debated. It is not especially large, brightly colored, specifically shaped or selectively displayed during courtship.

He said the human clitoris "could have evolved to be much more conspicuous if males had preferred sexual partners with larger brighter clitorises" and that "its inconspicuous design combined with its exquisite sensitivity suggests that the clitoris is important not as an object of male mate choice, but as a mechanism of female choice.

While Miller stated that male scientists such as Stephen Jay Gould and Donald Symons "have viewed the female clitoral orgasm as an evolutionary side-effect of the male capacity for penile orgasm" and that they "suggested that clitoral orgasm cannot be an adaptation because it is too hard to achieve", [] Gould acknowledged that "most female orgasms emanate from a clitoral, rather than vaginal or some other , site" and that his nonadaptive belief "has been widely misunderstood as a denial of either the adaptive value of female orgasm in general, or even as a claim that female orgasms lack significance in some broader sense".

He said that although he accepts that "clitoral orgasm plays a pleasurable and central role in female sexuality and its joys," "[a]ll these favorable attributes, however, emerge just as clearly and just as easily, whether the clitoral site of orgasm arose as a spandrel or an adaptation".

He added that the "male biologists who fretted over [the adaptionist questions] simply assumed that a deeply vaginal site, nearer the region of fertilization, would offer greater selective benefit" due to their Darwinian , summum bonum beliefs about enhanced reproductive success.

Similar to Gould's beliefs about adaptionist views and that "females grow nipples as adaptations for suckling, and males grow smaller unused nipples as a spandrel based upon the value of single development channels", [] Elisabeth Lloyd suggested that there is little evidence to support an adaptionist account of female orgasm.

Chivers stated that "Lloyd views female orgasm as an ontogenetic leftover; women have orgasms because the urogenital neurophysiology for orgasm is so strongly selected for in males that this developmental blueprint gets expressed in females without affecting fitness" and this is similar to "males hav[ing] nipples that serve no fitness-related function.

At the conference for Canadian Society of Women in Philosophy , Nancy Tuana argued that the clitoris is unnecessary in reproduction; she stated that it has been ignored because of "a fear of pleasure.

It is pleasure separated from reproduction. That's the fear. The truth is that both are sexual and both are reproductive. Modifications to the clitoris can be intentional or unintentional.

They include female genital mutilation FGM , sex reassignment surgery for trans men as part transitioning , which may also include clitoris enlargement , intersex surgery , and genital piercings.

Those taking hormones or other medications as part of a transgender transition usually experience dramatic clitoral growth; individual desires and the difficulties of phalloplasty construction of a penis often result in the retention of the original genitalia with the enlarged clitoris as a penis analogue metoidioplasty.

In clitoridectomy , the clitoris may be removed as part of a radical vulvectomy to treat cancer such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia ; however, modern treatments favor more conservative approaches, as invasive surgery can have psychosexual consequences.

In reduction clitoroplasty, a common intersex surgery, the glans is preserved and parts of the erectile bodies are excised. He stated that although "expectations can be standardized within these few parameters, operative techniques have not yet become homogeneous.

Investigators have preferred different operations for different ages of patients". Gender assessment and surgical treatment are the two main steps in intersex operations.

Later, it was understood that the clitoris glans and sensory input are important to facilitate orgasm," stated Atilla. The clitoral glans's epithelium "has high cutaneous sensitivity, which is important in sexual responses" and it is because of this that "recession clitoroplasty was later devised as an alternative, but reduction clitoroplasty is the method currently performed.

What is often referred to as " clit piercing " is the more common and significantly less complicated clitoral hood piercing. Since clitoral piercing is difficult and very painful, piercing of the clitoral hood is more common than piercing the clitoral shaft, owing to the small percentage of people who are anatomically suited for it.

The triangle piercing is a very deep horizontal hood piercing, and is done behind the clitoris as opposed to in front of it. For styles such as the Isabella , which pass through the clitoral shaft but are placed deep at the base, they provide unique stimulation and still require the proper genital build; the Isabella starts between the clitoral glans and the urethra, exiting at the top of the clitoral hood; this piercing is highly risky with regard to damage that may occur because of intersecting nerves.

Persistent genital arousal disorder PGAD results in a spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal in women, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire.

Drugs may cause or affect clitoral priapism. The drug trazodone is known to cause male priapism as a side effect, but there is only one documented report that it may have caused clitoral priapism, in which case discontinuing the medication may be a remedy.

Because PGAD is relatively rare and, as its own concept apart from clitoral priapism, has only been researched since , there is little research into what may cure or remedy the disorder.

With regard to historical and modern perceptions of the clitoris, the clitoris and the penis were considered equivalent by scholars for more than 2, years in all respects except their arrangement.

Ancient Greek and Roman sexuality additionally designated penetration as "male-defined" sexuality. The term tribas , or tribade , was used to refer to a woman or intersex individual who actively penetrated another person male or female through use of the clitoris or a dildo.

As any sexual act was believed to require that one of the partners be " phallic " and that therefore sexual activity between women was impossible without this feature, mythology popularly associated lesbians with either having enlarged clitorises or as incapable of enjoying sexual activity without the substitution of a phallus.

In , Charles Estienne was the first writer to identify the clitoris in a work based on dissection, but he concluded that it had a urinary function.

In , Falloppio stated, "Modern anatomists have entirely neglected it The average anatomist had difficulty challenging Galen's or Vesalius's research; Galen was the most famous physician of the Greek era and his works were considered the standard of medical understanding up to and throughout the Renaissance i.

In addition to Avicenna's naming it the albaratha or virga "rod" and Colombo's calling it sweetness of Venus, Hippocrates used the term columella "little pillar'" , and Albucasis , an Arabic medical authority, named it tentigo "tension".

The names indicated that each description of the structures was about the body and glans of the clitoris, but usually the glans.

While in Constantine 's treatise Liber de coitu , the clitoris is referred to a few times, Magnus gave an equal amount of attention to male and female organs.

Like Avicenna, Magnus also used the word virga for the clitoris, but employed it for the male and female genitals; despite his efforts to give equal ground to the clitoris, the cycle of suppression and rediscovery of the organ continued, and a 16th-century justification for clitoridectomy appears to have been confused by hermaphroditism and the imprecision created by the word nymphae substituted for the word clitoris.

Nymphotomia was a medical operation to excise an unusually large clitoris, but what was considered "unusually large" was often a matter of perception.

Thus the parts are cut". Caspar Bartholin , a 17th-century Danish anatomist, dismissed Colombo's and Falloppio's claims that they discovered the clitoris, arguing that the clitoris had been widely known to medical science since the second century.

Like Falloppio and Bartholin, De Graaf criticized Colombo's claim of having discovered the clitoris; his work appears to have provided the first comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy.

The accusations led to a sensational libel trial, which Billing eventually won; Philip Hoare reports that Billing argued that "as a medical term, 'clitoris' would only be known to the 'initiated', and was incapable of corrupting moral minds".

Concerning other beliefs about the clitoris, Hite and found that, during sexual intimacy with a partner, clitoral stimulation was more often described by women as foreplay than as a primary method of sexual activity, including orgasm.

They looked at the terms used to describe genitalia in the PsycINFO database from to and found that penis was used in 1, sources, vagina in , while clitoris was only mentioned in They additionally analyzed 57 books listed in a computer database for sex instruction.

The students were overwhelmingly educated to believe that the vagina is the female counterpart of the penis.

The authors found that the students' belief that the inner portion of the vagina is the most sexually sensitive part of the female body correlated with negative attitudes toward masturbation and strong support for sexual myths.

A study reported that, among a sample of undergraduate students, the most frequently cited sources for knowledge about the clitoris were school and friends, and that this was associated with the least amount of tested knowledge.

Knowledge of the clitoris by self-exploration was the least cited, but "respondents correctly answered, on average, three of the five clitoral knowledge measures".

The authors stated that "[k]nowledge correlated significantly with the frequency of women's orgasm in masturbation but not partnered sex" and that their "results are discussed in light of gender inequality and a social construction of sexuality, endorsed by both men and women, that privileges men's sexual pleasure over women's, such that orgasm for women is pleasing, but ultimately incidental.

Clitoraid spokesperson Nadine Gary stated that the group's mission is to raise public awareness about the clitoris because it has "been ignored, vilified, made taboo, and considered sinful and shameful for centuries".

In , Odile Fillod created a 3D printable , open source, full-size model of the clitoris, for use in a set of anti-sexist videos she had been commissioned to produce.

Fillod was interviewed by Stephanie Theobald , whose article in The Guardian stated that the 3D model would be used for sex education in French schools, from primary to secondary level, from September onwards; [] this was not the case, but the story went viral across the world.

In a study, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of educational sciences postgraduate students to trace the level of their knowledge concerning the organs of the female and male reproductive system.

The authors reported that about two-thirds of the students failed to name external female genitals, such as the clitoris and labia, even after detailed pictures were provided to them.

In , New York artist Sophia Wallace started work on a multimedia project to challenge misconceptions about the clitoris. Based on O'Connell's research, Wallace's work emphasizes the sheer scope and size of the human clitoris.

She says that ignorance of this still seems to be pervasive in modern society. People are hungry to be able to talk about this," Wallace said.

In , another project started in New York, street art that has since spread to almost cities: Clitorosity, a "community-driven effort to celebrate the full structure of the clitoris", combining chalk drawings and words to spark interaction and conversation with passers-by, which the team documents on social media.

Other projects listed by the BBC include Clito Clito, body-positive jewellery made in Berlin; Clitorissima , a documentary intended to normalize mother-daughter conversations about the clitoris; and a ClitArt festival in London, encompassing spoken word performances as well as visual art.

Significant controversy surrounds female genital mutilation FGM , [] [] with the World Health Organization WHO being one of many health organizations that have campaigned against the procedures on behalf of human rights , stating that "FGM has no health benefits" and that it is "a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes".

Female genital mutilation is carried out in several societies, especially in Africa, with 85 percent of genital mutilations performed in Africa consisting of clitoridectomy or excision, [] [] and to a lesser extent in other parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia, on girls from a few days old to mid-adolescent, often to reduce sexual desire in an effort to preserve vaginal virginity.

Although the clitoris exists in all mammal species, [] few detailed studies of the anatomy of the clitoris in non-humans exist. In females, this bone is known as the os clitoridis.

Although the bears have been described as having "a birth canal that runs through the clitoris rather than forming a separate vagina" a feature that is estimated to make up 10 to 20 percent of the bears' population , [] scientists state that female spotted hyenas are the only non- hermaphroditic female mammals devoid of an external vaginal opening, and whose sexual anatomy is distinct from usual intersex cases.

In spider monkeys , the clitoris is especially developed and has an interior passage, or urethra, that makes it almost identical to the penis, and it retains and distributes urine droplets as the female spider monkey moves around.

Scholar Alan F. Dixson stated that this urine "is voided at the bases of the clitoris, flows down the shallow groove on its perineal surface, and is held by the skin folds on each side of the groove".

The clitoris erects in squirrel monkeys during dominance displays, which indirectly influences the squirrel monkeys' reproductive success.

The clitoris of bonobos is larger and more externalized than in most mammals; [] Natalie Angier said that a young adolescent "female bonobo is maybe half the weight of a human teenager, but her clitoris is three times bigger than the human equivalent, and visible enough to waggle unmistakably as she walks".

Ethologist Jonathan Balcombe stated that female bonobos rub their clitorises together rapidly for ten to twenty seconds, and this behavior, "which may be repeated in rapid succession, is usually accompanied by grinding, shrieking, and clitoral engorgement"; he added that, on average, they engage in this practice "about once every two hours", and as bonobos sometimes mate face-to-face, "evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk has suggested that the position of the clitoris in bonobos and some other primates has evolved to maximize stimulation during sexual intercourse".

Many strepsirrhine species exhibit elongated clitorises that are either fully or partially tunneled by the urethra, including mouse lemurs , dwarf lemurs , all Eulemur species, lorises and galagos.

They are described as having "elongated, pendulous clitorises that are [fully] tunneled by a urethra". The urethra is surrounded by erectile tissue, which allows for significant swelling during breeding seasons, but this erectile tissue differs from the typical male corpus spongiosum.

During pregnancy, estrogen, A 4 , and testosterone levels are raised, but female fetuses are still "protected" from excess testosterone.

While female spotted hyenas are sometimes referred to as hermaphrodites or as intersex , [] and scientists of ancient and later historical times believed that they were hermaphrodites, [] [] [] modern scientists do not refer to them as such.

Wingfield stated that "the resemblance to male genitalia is so close that sex can be determined with confidence only by palpation of the scrotum". In the females, this scrotum consists of soft adipose tissue.

Just like a penis, [it] is fully erectile, raising its head in hyena greeting ceremonies, social displays, games of rough and tumble or when sniffing out peers".

Due to their higher levels of androgen exposure during fetal development, the female hyenas are significantly more muscular and aggressive than their male counterparts; social-wise, they are of higher rank than the males, being dominant or dominant and alpha , and the females who have been exposed to higher levels of androgen than average become higher-ranking than their female peers.

Subordinate females lick the clitorises of higher-ranked females as a sign of submission and obedience, but females also lick each other's clitorises as a greeting or to strengthen social bonds; in contrast, while all males lick the clitorises of dominant females, the females will not lick the penises of males because males are considered to be of lowest rank.

The urethra and vagina of the female spotted hyena exit through the clitoris, allowing the females to urinate, copulate and give birth through this organ.

In an action similar to pushing up a shirtsleeve, the "female retracts the [pseudo-penis] on itself, and creates an opening into which the male inserts his own penis".

A Baskin et al. The dorsal nerves penetrated the corporeal body and distally the glans in the hyena" and, in female hyenas, "the dorsal nerves fanned out laterally on the clitoral body.

Glans morphology was different in appearance in both sexes, being wide and blunt in the female and tapered in the male". Many species of Talpid moles exhibit peniform clitorises that are tunneled by the urethra and are found to have erectile tissue, most notably species from the Talpa genus found in Europe.

Genetic studies have revealed that females have an XX genotype and do not have any translocated Y-linked genes.

DMRT1 , a gene that regulates development of Sertoli cells , was found to be expressed in female germ cells before meiosis, however no Sertoli cells were present in the fully-developed ovotestes.

Additionally, the female germ cells only enter meiosis postnatally, a phenomenon that has not been found in any other eutherian mammal.

Female European moles are highly territorial and will not allow males in to their territory outside of breeding season, the probable cause of this behavior being the high levels of testosterone secreted by the female ovotestes.

Researchers studying the peripheral and central afferent pathways from the feline clitoris concluded that "afferent neurons projecting to the clitoris of the cat were identified by WGA-HRP tracing in the S1 and S2 dorsal root ganglia.

An average of cells were identified on each side of the animal. The average cross sectional area of clitoral afferent neuron profiles was 1.

The external phenotype and reproductive behavior of 21 freemartin sheep and two male pseudohermaphrodite sheep were recorded with the aim of identifying any characteristics that could predict a failure to breed.

The vagina's length and the size and shape of the vulva and clitoris were among the aspects analyzed. While the study reported that "a number of physical and behavioural abnormalities were detected," it also concluded that "the only consistent finding in all 23 animals was a short vagina which varied in length from 3.

In a study concerning the clitoral structure of mice, the mouse perineal urethra was documented as being surrounded by erectile tissue forming the bulbs of the clitoris.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Female sex organ. For other uses, see Clit disambiguation. The internal anatomy of the human vulva , with the clitoral hood and labia minora indicated as lines.

The clitoris extends from the visible portion to a point below the pubic bone. Location of 1 clitoral hood and 2 clitoral glans.

Main articles: Genital modification and mutilation , Female genital mutilation , and Clitoromegaly. See also: Vagina and vulva in art. Further information: Religious views on female genital mutilation and Clitoral hood reduction.

The genitals are pressed tightly together while the partners move in a grinding motion. Some rub their clitoris against their partner's pubic bone.

Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Nature Education. Retrieved 10 August American Academy of Family Physicians. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 18 August Chicago Women's Liberation Union.

Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 12 December The Stranger. Retrieved 6 May In women, this has a variety of results, including vaginal lubrication and clitoral erection; this can cause the clitoral glans to partially or fully emerge from beneath the clitoral hood.

As this part of the clitoris contains 8, nerve endings, this often results in a cascading effect of increased sexual arousal.

The highly sensitive clitoris plays a central role in the female orgasm. Although rare, other events than sexual arousal can result in a clitoral erection.

Any prolonged motion or vibration involving the pelvic area, even walking or the use of some motorized vehicles, can accidentally create this effect.

Like men, women are sometimes prone to nocturnal erections that can occur during sleep, with or without accompanying sexual dreams.

Scientists believe this may be a way to provide regular oxygen flow to the pelvis and ensure genital health.

A clitoral erection will generally subside after orgasm or in the absence of continued stimulation. When that happens, it feels really good, almost tingly.

More research is needed to conclusively answer this question. So go ahead and touch it. For vulva owners on testosterone, Garrison recommends trying the Buck Off Sleeve , which is a masturbation sleeve made especially for trans men and nonbinary folks taking testosterone.

It means visiting a pelvic floor therapist who can assess the health of your pelvic floor and give you at-home exercises to try if needed to support its health.

Find a qualified pelvic floor therapist at this directory , courtesy of the American Physical Therapy Association.

So, things that support healthy blood flow, like a balanced diet, regular exercise, and not smoking or drinking, will help make your hard-on better, he says.

If it does, it may be a sign of persistent genital arousal disorder PGAD or priapism. In both cases, sex therapist Angela Watson aka Doctor Climax says you should seek medical attention.

In her free time, she can be found reading self-help books and romance novels, bench-pressing, or pole dancing.

Follow her on Instagram. Many people think the clitoris is just a tiny button, but it's so much more than that.

Learn how big the clitoris is and how to use it for pleasure. The clitoral hood is a fold of skin that surrounds and protects the glans clitoris.

The glans gets all the glory when it comes to sexual pleasure, but…. Female masturbation is a safe and natural way to feel good, discover what gets you hot, and release built-up sexual tension.

The uterine venous plexus includes two uterine veins. These arise from the side of the uterus, where they also connect with the vaginal and ovarian….

The vaginal vein refers to the group of blood vessels located near the genitalia on the female human body.

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